Indigenous people are a very small minority on the peninsula, but in large numbers in Borneo. Then there are the two main non-Bumiputera groups. That is to say, non-natives. Chinese and Indians. The Chinese represent 23% of the population. They are practically all Han. Some Chinese arrived in Malaysia very early, around the 15th century, others on the contrary arrived in the 20th century during British colonization. Indians represent less than 10% of the population. Good Indian is not really an ethnic group, but here it mostly means that they are from India. They migrated to Malaysia especially in the 19th century and then in the 20th century during colonization British. Most are Tamils. Then there are other ethnic minorities, Europeans, Arabs, Vietnamese, etc … So if we look state by state, the Malays are almost always in the majority. And when they’re not, they’re still the biggest group. The Chinese represent 30% of the population in Johor, 40% in Penang. They are mostly on the west coast. In Terengganu, they are less than 3% of the population. In any case, the proportion of Chinese is declining because they have a lower fertility rate. Indians form their largest percentage in Negeri Sembilan with 15% of the population. Now let’s move on to religion. For religion, it follows ethnic groups a little bit. Malays are Muslims. The natives have animist religions. The Chinese are either Buddhists or Taoists or even sometimes Christians. The Indians are mostly Hindus as they are Tamils and the Tamils are a largely Hindu people. However, there are also Tamils who have converted to Islam. So with these large communities, Malaysia is a multicultural country, but also a fairly divided country. Tamil communities in Malaysia continue to use Tamil as the language of everyday life.
In fact, you can almost say that Malaysia is a communitarian country. Communitarian country but trying to be united. Islam was therefore chosen as the official religion and Malaysian as the official language. This has resulted in the fact that Singapore is detached from the country, indeed, in Singapore, the Chinese are largely in the majority. Network: Malaysia is a one-headed country, which means everything is centered around one large agglomeration. In this case, it is Kuala Lumpur. In fact, the Malay Peninsula is two-headed, since there are two major cities: Singapore in the south and Kuala Lumpur in the center. If we just take the population of the Republic of Singapore, we get 5.5 million. If we take the population of Kuala Lumpur municipality, we get 1.6 million inhabitants. Except that this way, we do not count the agglomerations. The suburb of Singapore is located in Malaysia, there are 1.5 million inhabitants living in the south of Johor near Singapore. As a result, the Singapore metropolitan area has a population of 7 million. In Kuala Lumpur, we can add the Sultanate of Selangor which surrounds the municipality. The sultanate has 4 million inhabitants and if we add the Negeri Sembilan which has 1 million inhabitants, we can say that the metropolitan area of Kuala Lumpur has about 7 million inhabitants. So we end up with a peninsula composed of two agglomerations of 7 million inhabitants out of a total of 30 million inhabitants, if we include Singapore and West Malaysia.
So one inhabitant in two lives in one of these agglomerations. The third largest city on the peninsula is Penang. Penang is the name of a tiny state that has 1.7 million inhabitants, you can round up to 2 million if you form an agglomeration with the cities around. It is therefore the second largest city in the country and the third largest on the peninsula if you count Singapore. After these three big millionaire agglomerations, there are 600,000 inhabitants of Ipoh, 500,000 inhabitants of Malacca, Kuantan 400,000 inhabitants. Kuantan is the largest city on the eastern coast. And finally, there is Kota Kinabalu, also 400,000 inhabitants, the largest city in Malaysia.
eastern. But on the island of Borneo, it is far from being the largest city, there are others in the Indonesian part, a little bigger. But let’s go back to West Malaysia, where we can still add two important cities: Kuala Terengganu in the northeast and Alor Setar in the northwest. As for the motorway network, it’s simple. There is a north-south axis that starts from Alor Setar and goes all the way to Singapore. And then there is a second axis, which starts from Kuala Lumpur and goes to Kuala Terengganu via Kuantan. It is a motorway network which may seem quite simple but in reality it is rather complete since all the major cities of the country are connected to it, at least in West Malaysia. We can even say that Malaysia is the country of Southeast Asia with the most complete motorway network. It is also a fairly old freeway network compared to those in other Southeast Asian countries since the first freeways were created in the early 1980s. For urban freeways in Kuala Lumpur, they even appeared. from the 1970s. So that proves one thing, Malaysia is a more developed country than its neighbors, apart from Singapore of course. In East Malaysia, of course, there are no highways. Because it is a much less populated region. The two big cities Kuching and Kota Kinabalu are very far from each other. Overall, Malaysia is an all-car country. We can see it well in the morphology of cities. They are very large, many individual houses, there is an American town planning you could say. That’s why there is a road policy.
But that doesn’t prevent the country from having a passenger rail network. the most line is that the West Coast Line which runs from the Thai border to Johor within the south of the peninsula. there’s also an East Coast line that runs from the northeast to the West Coast line. actually this line doesn’t line the coast in the least . Otherwise Kuala Lumpur has different rail conveyance . a light-weight metro, an important metro, a monorail and two commuter lines. In fact, the metropolitan area of Kuala Lumpur revolves around a serious axis called the Klang Valley. Klang being a city that borders the ocean and is connected to Kuala Lumpur . within the Klang Valley, there are several new towns, towns created from scratch to steer the rapid climb of Kuala Lumpur . the primary was Petaling Jaya within the 1950s but which grew especially within the 1970s. round the same time, there was Shah Alam, inaugurated within the 1960s. And more recently, we will cite Cyberjaya, inaugurated in 1997, which is meant to be the town of multimedia. Of course, in East Malaysia there are only a few rail lines. It’s more anecdotal than anything . it’s therefore obvious that the 2 main cities of East Malaysia are hooked in to the plane. Moreover, it’s noticeable if you check out the foremost trafficked airports within the country. the primary is in fact Kuala Lumpur , because it’s an outsized international airport. But the second is that of Kota Kinabalu in East Malaysia . The third airport is that of the second largest city within the country: Penang. and therefore the fourth is that of Kuching, another one in East Malaysia . Suddenly East Malaysia has only 20% of the country’s population, it’s two of the four largest airports within the country. These four airports are truly the country’s four main airports, with over 5 million annual passengers each. There are a complete of ten airports that handle quite a million passengers a year, five of which are located in Borneo.
Of course, the airports in East Malaysia are so busy, it’s because there are regular flights between Borneo and therefore the peninsula. it’s precisely because of having a part of the country isolated from the remainder that an air network has been ready to develop. the most domestic line in Malaysia is that the line between Kuala Lumpur and Kota Simply Kinabalu. But the road between Kuala Lumpur and Singapore is even busier, it’s a world line, and it’s also one among the busiest international airlines within the world. Suddenly, thanks to its geography, Malaysia has had to develop a domestic air network. Whereas Singapore could only move internationally. Singapore features a strategic place, it’s located halfway between Australia and Japan, so it’s at the middle of the Pacific front. it’s even halfway between the peninsula of Indochina and therefore the islands of Insulinde. it’s therefore normal that, recently, Kuala Lumpur, located only a couple of hundred kilometers from Singapore, has decided to use an equivalent strategy.
Today, Kuala Lumpur handles just over 50 million passengers a year, hardly but Singapore with almost 60 million. it’s therefore one among the most important airports within the world. it’s also the bottom of Airasia, Southeast Asia’s largest low-cost airline. Malaysia Airlines is that the major national airline. In summary, Air Asia is that the largest Asian airline outside of China by number of passengers, with the most competitor being Lion Air, the low-cost company in Indonesia. And it’s no wonder that the low cost companies come from these two island countries. Of course, Malaysia is additionally the along the Straits of Malacca, there’s the port of Klang which wants to compete thereupon of Singapore. Especially since Singapore is that the second largest container port within the world! Today, the Port of Klang is one among the most ports within the world. But suddenly, we will address the economy of this country which isn’t only oriented towards the strait. Economy: Malaysia is taken into account to be an almost developed country. aside from Singapore which may be a very wealthy country, Malaysia are often considered the foremost developed country in Southeast Asia .
However, in terms of gross GDP, Malaysia lags behind Indonesia, Thailand and Singapore. But in terms of GDP per capita, it’s well before Thailand and Indonesia.As an almost developed country, we cannot forget the Wawasan 2020, it’s the name of an economic challenge which aims for Malaysia to become a developed country by the year 2020. The project was launched in early 1990s. Malaysia are often said to be one among the New Exporting Countries in regard to the New Industrialized Countries. Singapore is one among the New Industrialized Countries which became developed countries from the 1980s. The NPEs are quite simply the countries which can become developed thereafter, perhaps from the 2020s, for Malaysia, it seems well started . If we return to the source, Malaise was originally a British colony, at that point it had been useful for growing rubber. The rubber is found in rubber, a tropical Brazilian tree that was brought back to Malaysia. additionally thereto , there are large reserves of tin, a metal. because of these two resources, when Malaysia became independent, it already had a particular economic lead. it had been therefore easier to inherit a liberal system almost like the uk . After rubber, Malaysia decided to use its large forest areas to cultivate vegetable oil . The cultivation of vegetable oil mainly started within the 1960s. The country therefore has a plus , it’s not very populated, it can use large areas for cultivation and additionally , it’s an outsized a part of the land. the island of Borneo which is virtually uninhabited. Borneo is therefore used almost exclusively for culture.