the monopoly that the Roman Church has over it. The most famous is Martin Luther that challenged Rome in the 1520s. -Yeah the Catholic religion, it takes advantage of us! We have to challenge all of this! The first country to protest against the Catholic Church is the Canton of Zurich. In 1524, in various German countries, in particular Baden, revolts are emerging against the supremacy of the Catholic religious order. In the 1530s, there is a war between Catholic cantons and Protestant cantons in the south of the Holy Roman Empire. -We are against Catholicism! -We won’t let you do that! In 1523, Protestantism developed in Sweden in order to find its independence from the Kalmar Union dominated by Denmark, what will work. But in fact, the same year, it is also expanding in Denmark, which will later establish it in Norway. England becomes independent Protestant with their own current: Anglicanism.
-Oh then, since everyone is doing it, if that can help me stop having the Pope annoying me, I am embarking on Anglicanism! Meanwhile in the east, the Ottoman Empire which is already well established in Europe, dangerously approaching the Holy Empire, he is waging war on Hungary, which Austria must protect. Eventually, Hungary loses and its Kingdom is split in two. A part is annexed by the Turks, the other by Austria. For the moment, the Turks will not go further in Europe. The Ottoman Empire has already reclaimed a lot of territory in a short time, but he is not about to stop since he will annex the Regency of Tripoli weakly protected by the Knights of Malta. In 1546, after several failures to suppress Lutheranism, the Holy Empire decides to start a military repression. Obviously, the people can do nothing against the might of the Empire, but the latter will have to give it up if he doesn’t want to end up in civil war.
-Good, I think to kick Lutheranism, it’s a bit dead, we’ll make do with it … Thus, in 1555, Protestantism was recognized as a religion by the Holy Empire, at that time it was ruled by Charles Quint, who is also King of Spain and Archduke of Austria, since at the same time Spain was colonizing half of America, we can say that Charles V is the most powerful man in the Western world. Among the territories of Charles V, there is the Burgundian Netherlands, part of which has become predominantly Protestant, in order to avoid that the provinces of the latter do not end up dividing, Charles Quint decides to merge them under the same government.
In this way the Netherlands has just been created as a united country but under Austro-Spanish supervision. In the 1550s, Sweden, independent for about thirty years argues over territories with Russia. But the problem seems to have been resolved as early as 1557. But later, Russia seeks to annex territories in the Baltic Sea, Poland, Lithuania, Sweden and Denmark intervene to protect the faltering Confederation of Livonia. Finally, Russia loses and the victorious countries share the Confederation who will become especially Polish, the latter merging with Lithuania. A huge country is therefore created in Eastern Europe and separated Russia from the Holy Roman Empire from 1569. After this war, Sweden and Denmark, which were temporarily allies bring their rivalry up to date.
They start a war that will only weaken them, there will be no change at the end of 1570. In 1568, in the Netherlands, tensions between Protestants and Catholics return and the Spaniards, allies of the Austrians, must intervene. The Protestant part in the north will declare itself independent in 1581. But back to the Baltic Sea, in 1590, Russia took advantage of its fitness to attack Sweden and get back what she lost. However, although victorious, Russia begins to suffer from unrest from 1598 because of inheritance issues. The same year, France, who had suffered much from the Protestant revolts is obliged to implement the Edict of Nantes which allows religious tolerance as the Holy Empire had done a few years earlier. In 1605, Poland, taking advantage of the instability in Russia, invades it then goes to war and reclaim some territories in the east.
Always to take advantage of the unrest in Russia, Sweden tries to put pro-Swedish king in Russia then attack him and take the opportunity to recover some pieces of territory in eastern Finland. During the same period, Sweden hopes to recover some territories in northern Scandinavia, except that they are defended by Denmark who goes to war in turn and gains several advantages over the northern territories. In 1609, the civil war still rages in the Netherlands. -We in the north are Protestants! We are fed up with the Spanish crown! -We in the south, it’s okay, we saw it well to be Catholic … We therefore decided to divide the country in two. The north becomes the United Provinces independent and protestant country and the Catholic south remains under the Spanish crown becoming the Spanish Netherlands. This has helped calm tensions in this part of Europe.
But at the same time, Sweden and Denmark fought a lot of wars and hope to use their Protestant influences to gain territories in northern Germany. The Holy Empire meanwhile, although he authorized Protestantism, is afraid that its influence, via Austria, will decline. In addition, tensions in the Netherlands will increase again leaving bad omen on religious stability in Europe.