History of Europe 30 Years War

Spread the loveIt dominates in particular thanks to its religion, Catholicism, majority religion throughout Western Europe. But for some time, Protestant currents are born and question the Roman church. -Roman Church, I have a problem, German populations begin to become Lutheran. -Oh, it was you who also gave them too much religious freedom … In short, in 1618 the war began, the small Protestant countries of northern Germany against Austria and the Spanish Netherlands. But also the small Protestant countries of southern Germany against northern Catholic Italy. All this within the Holy Roman Empire. Among the small Protestant states, two

Past culture about Protestant reforms

Spread the lovethe monopoly that the Roman Church has over it. The most famous is Martin Luther that challenged Rome in the 1520s. -Yeah the Catholic religion, it takes advantage of us! We have to challenge all of this! The first country to protest against the Catholic Church is the Canton of Zurich. In 1524, in various German countries, in particular Baden, revolts are emerging against the supremacy of the Catholic religious order. In the 1530s, there is a war between Catholic cantons and Protestant cantons in the south of the Holy Roman Empire. -We are against Catholicism! -We won’t

The most spoken language I thought was pencil

Spread the loveTajik is written with the Cyrillic alphabetunlike Persian and Dari which are written with the Arabic alphabetin the Persian variant.There is Quechua, the official language in Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador.Like all Native American languages in Spanish-speaking countries,their official status is symbolic and isn’t utilized in the administration,Spanish dominates. Mandarin is that the official language of the People’s Republic of China,from Taiwan which is that the Republic of China and from Singapore.Now we attend 4 countries! Dutch is that the official language in three countries. Netherlands , Belgium and Suriname.But there’s Afrikaans which may be a variant of Dutch,

Languages spoken in the most countries!!!!

Spread the lovethe list of languages which have official status in several countries. i will be able to only take under consideration the languages which have official status at the national level. In some countries there are not any official languages, during this case, i will be able to take under consideration the language which is employed de facto within the administration. during a country, there are often either a politician language, there can also be official national languages or de facto languages. allow us to take a couple of examples. In Botswana there are two official languages: English and

The geography of Malaysia (a second part)

Spread the loveIndigenous people are a very small minority on the peninsula, but in large numbers in Borneo. Then there are the two main non-Bumiputera groups. That is to say, non-natives. Chinese and Indians. The Chinese represent 23% of the population. They are practically all Han. Some Chinese arrived in Malaysia very early, around the 15th century, others on the contrary arrived in the 20th century during British colonization. Indians represent less than 10% of the population. Good Indian is not really an ethnic group, but here it mostly means that they are from India. They migrated to Malaysia especially

The geography of Malaysia

Spread the loveMalaysia is a country located in Southeast Asia. A little less than 330,000 km² for 30 million inhabitants. The density is 86 inhabitants per km². The capital is officially Kuala Lumpur. Although all government institutions are located in its suburb of Putrajaya. The geography of Malaysia is particularly interesting for two points. First, the fact that it is a country separated in two, the peninsula on one side, Borneo on the other. And secondly, because it is a country where several ethnic groups live together. Physical geography: As said before, the country is cut in two. On one

Geography of Italy (the third part)

Spread the loveIt’s a tradition but it’s not too suitable to the planet economy. In summary, we will say that the North West is that the area of the capitalism , while the North-East and therefore the Center-North are the world of the tiny business economy. additionally thereto , we must add tourism. There are several sorts of tourism. Seaside tourism, especially in Sardinia or the Adriatic. There are many seaside resorts, the foremost famous is Rimini. in fact cultural tourism, everywhere the country. Italy is legendary to possess the best number of UNESCO heritage. But hey, generally , the

Geography of Italy (a second part)

Spread the lovePeople don’t speak Standard Greek but an endemic Greek dialect, we don’t know if they speak it from ancient Greece or since Byzantine times. Finally, still in the south of Italy, there are Albanian communities, the Arbëresh who are descendants of Albanians arrived at the Renaissance. After ethnically, Southern Italy would be much more varied than that since the territory has been conquered by the Greeks, the Arabs, the Normans and the Spaniards. The North has been populated by Germanic peoples. As for religion, if we omit recent immigration, the territory is entirely Catholic. Speaking of immigration, Italy

Geography of Italy

Spread the loveItaly may be a country located in Europe. 301,336 km², the population is approximately 60 million. The capital is Rome and it’s been a republic since 1946. physiography Italy is in particular a peninsula, called the Italian Peninsula . additionally to the present peninsula. The Padania plain to the north and therefore the Alps even further north. additionally , there are several islands including the 2 most vital are Sardinia and Sicily. It’s quite mountainous country since we discover there in fact Alps with Mont Blanc which rises to around 4,810 meters, the most important summit in Italy

a second part

Geography of Netherlands (a second part)

Spread the loveThe Hague and Rotterdam, for his or her part, are very close, together they greatly exceed 2 million inhabitants. However, we will go even further. There are many cities between Amsterdam and therefore the other two, notably Harlem and Leyden. If we take the 2 regions North Holland and South Holland we get a population of quite 6 million inhabitants to which we will add the province of Utrecht which of Flevoland to make an enormous urban complex of seven million inhabitants. This set is nicknamed the Randstad Holland which suggests the border town of Holland because urbanization

Geography of Belgium

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Belgium may be a country located in Europe. 30,528 km² The country’s population is approximately 11 million. The capital is Brussels and it’s a federal constitutional monarchy. physiography Let’s take a fast check out the relief: The Ardennes are practically the sole mountains within the country and make it culminate at 694 meters with the Signal de Botrange. The north is at low altitude, the south is at a better altitude, it is a gradient. Territorial administration The country has been a federation since 1993 but has had local governments since 1980. Belgium is formed from three regions: Wallonia, Flanders and Brussels. The regions are divided into provinces, 5 in Flanders and 5 in Wallonia. Brussels isn’t concerned. and therefore the provinces are divided into 589 municipalities, including 19 within the Brussels region.
What makes the foremost populous municipality within the country is Antwerp and not Brussels which is subdivided. Then on top of all that, the country is split into three linguistic communities: Flemish Community which concerns the Flanders Region and therefore the Brussels Region. The French community which concerns a really large a part of the Walloon Region and therefore the Brussels Region. The German-speaking community which concerns some municipalities within the Walloon Region. Languages Belgium is therefore a trilingual country with a Flemish or Dutch-speaking area, a French-speaking area and a German-speaking area. But actually , the German-speaking part has little or no influence within the political life. The stake is between the 2 other communities. Note also that de jure Brussels may be a bilingual French-Flemish city. but the French took the advantage.
This double linguistic culture comes from a historical reason. Wallonia may be a recent concept, it dates from the 19th century and made it possible to designate the French-speaking areas in Belgium. Originally, in Wallonia, different French dialects are spoken like Picard or Liège, the latter was instituted during a language called Walloon. Picard and Walloon are both languages of OIL, a bit like the languages of the northern a part of France. Elsewhere, we speak Flemish because it’s a neighborhood linked to Netherlands . Let’s not forget that Dutch are often considered as a variant of ordinary German. For German-speaking municipalities, after the primary war , Germany offered them to Belgium as compensation. they need remained German-speaking ever since.
the municipalities therefore have Dutch as their official language, as everywhere in Flanders, except that thanks to the influence of Brussels, the populations living in these municipalities are predominantly French-speaking. They therefore enjoy linguistic facilities, especially within the administrative field. There are 27 municipalities of this sort throughout Belgium. Now let’s check out the regional linguistic influence. For the calculation i will be able to consider that Brussels is entirely French-speaking because French is far and away the most language. Flanders therefore has 6.4 million inhabitants. Wallonia and Brussels together have 4.8 million inhabitants. German municipalities have only 75,000 inhabitants. Dutch is therefore the most language of the country, almost 60% of the inhabitants sleep in a predominantly Dutch-speaking region. And on the contrary a touch quite 40% of the inhabitants sleep in a predominantly French-speaking region.
After that doesn’t mean that it represents the amount of French and Dutch speakers, there are tons of foreigners living in Belgium and who use one among the 2 languages at work without it being their maternal language . Demography Belgium features a very high density, 360 inhabitants per square kilometer. it’s therefore one among the densest countries within the world. In Flanders, the density increases to 480 inhabitants per square kilometer. allow us to now check out the most towns. Brussels is that the largest with 1.3 million inhabitants. The agglomeration includes the Brussels Region but also some municipalities in Flanders and even partly in Wallonia. The Rocade de Bruxelles are thus located in three regions at an equivalent time. there’s also Waterloo, now a suburban residential community in Wallonia.
Brussels airport is in Zaventem in Flanders, suddenly within the Dutch-speaking area. But as said before, whether you’re during a Dutch or French speaking area, French remains the most language of the agglomeration. Antwerp is that the second largest city within the country with 1.2 million inhabitants. So hardly but Brussels. The municipality of Antwerp has 500,000 inhabitants, it’s the foremost populous municipality within the country. And this agglomeration is entirely Dutch-speaking. French has no official status. The third largest city within the country is Liège, which is entirely French-speaking since it’s located in Wallonia. it might make about 700,000 inhabitants.
Among the opposite agglomerations we will mention Ghent which is Dutch-speaking, Charleroi which is French speaking, Bruges in Flanders, Namur in Wallonia. we will also mention the municipality of Kortrijk which isn’t necessarily very populated, but which is a component of the agglomeration of Lille. About sixty Belgian municipalities are a part of the Lille Eurometropolis, or a few million inhabitants. Network Let’s check out the road network. First for the highways, we’ve a group of highways including the A15 called the Autoroute de Wallonie which links Liège to Tournai. it’s a serious axis that connects all the most Walloon towns: Liège, Namur, Charleroi, Mons, Tournai to then join the French border. then it’s at an equivalent time a rail axis.
There is no real equivalent within the Flemish Region but there’s a highway that leaves from Antwerp and which matches to the French border via Ghent and Kortrijk. Otherwise the remainder of Belgium, they’re star-shaped highways with Brussels at its center.

For a long time, Belgium was a producer of coal, the mining basins were located in Liège, Charleroi and Mons which are exploited from the 18th century. As a result, Wallonia was much more dynamic than Flanders. But in the twentieth century, a mining basin developed in the Campine in Flanders. The coal economy has enabled the steel industry to flourish. But after World War II, the mines began to close. Charcoal from abroad becomes cheaper than that extracted locally where the workforce is too high. Suddenly the economy will reverse itself. Wallonia is deindustrializing and Flanders is benefiting from the tertiarisation of the economy.
Today the two major economic centers of the country are Brussels and Antwerp. Brussels is a city of services which benefits above all from the presence of European institutions. Antwerp is the diamond capital of the world. Diamonds from all over the world arrive there in rough form for cutting. In addition to that, the city has the second largest European port. As for airports, there are 4 main ones: Brussels, Charleroi, Liège and Antwerp. Obviously, in a small country like Belgium, there are no domestic flights. In fact, only Brussels airport is an airport for passengers originally, the national airline Sabena was based there. But the latter went bankrupt in 2001 with the liberalization of the European sky.
This same liberalization of the sky has allowed other airports to specialize. Liège airport has thus become the main freight airport in Belgium. Charleroi airport has become since 1997, the main base of the airline Ryanair in continental Europe, the airport renamed itself Brussels South for the occasion. Antwerp and Liège also welcome low cost flight passengers. Politics Let’s move on to politics, because it is quite original. Belgium has been known to have had periods of instability without a government. Since the 1960s, many political parties split into French-speaking and Dutch-speaking wings. In addition, separatist movements have developed.
Legislative elections elect representatives of the House of Representatives is the Lower House. It is made up of 150 deputies. Obviously, with the different parties of different languages, it is difficult to build coalitions. If we look at the 2014 elections, the NVA obtained 33 seats, it is therefore the first party. But it is a Dutch-speaking party and it is even a pro-Flemish party. To create a majority, the various Dutch-speaking right-wing parties united with the main French-speaking right-wing party, the Reform Movement. But the Flemish pro-independence NVA found itself in the minority. So it is the Reform Movement which with the alliance with the other Dutch centrist parties took power. The King of Belgium has therefore appointed as Prime Minister, the leader of the Reform Movement. So there you have it, many parties and many languages.
In general, for political parties, we can see three types of linguistic cleavage. The most classic case, these are the parties that each have their equivalent in a language. The Socialist Party in French-speaking Belgium and the Socialist Party in Dutch-speaking Belgium for example. Two parties, but which are equivalent and can form coalitions in government. Then there are the parties which are unitary. That is, one party for both languages, often they are either parties whose ideology is Belgian unity like the Belgian Union, or either far-left parties with an internationalist tendency. Finally, there are the linguistic nationalist parties, which themselves, cannot exist in the opposite camp.
For example the NVA which is a pro-Flemish party, does not exist in a French version. In any case, the breakthrough of the NVA in the last elections shows that the idea of an independent Flanders is increasingly appreciated. The Flemish represent the majority of the population, the main economic weight of the country but they have always had a lower status in history. French for a long time was the only institutional language of Belgium. The recognition of Flemish has therefore been gradual, and above all admitted in 1962 with the creation of linguistic borders.

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